Elasmobranchs Sharks and rays (elasmobranchs) differ from fish in an number of ways:-
- their skeletons are made of cartilage rather than bone,
- they don't have air-filled swim bladders to help with buoyancy control,
- they reproduce by internally fertilising a relatively small number of eggs whereas fish externally fertilise thousands of eggs. Some sharks lay eggs, others give birth to live young, rays are generally oviparous.




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Carcharias taurus, grey nurse shark Stegostoma fasciatum, leopard shark Orectolobus halei, Hale's wobbegong
Orectolobus maculatus, spotted wobbegong Orectolobus ornatus, ornate wobbegong Brachaelurus colcloughi Colclough shark
Brachaelurus waddi, blind shark Chiloscyllium punctatum, grey catshark

The bodies of rays are generally rounder and flatter than those of sharks.
Their pectoral fins are enlarged and fused to form the body disc. Dorsal and caudal fins may be reduced or absent.
Rays have their gills on the undersides of their bodies, whereas many sharks have their gills on the sides.
Sharks have large oily livers which helps to keep then afloat. Rays lack this device, they are negatively buoyant and must swim to stay off the bottom. Those with larger wings, such as eagle rays and mantas are more likely to be seen in mid-water.

Hypnos monopterigium, numbfish Trigonoptera testacea common stingaree Dasyatis kuhlii, blue-spotted ray
Dasyatis thetedis, bull ray
Manta alfredi, manta ray Aetobatus narinari, eagle ray
Rhinoptera neglecta, australian cownose ray    
Rhyncobatus djiddensis, guitarfish Rhinobatos typus, giant shovelnose ray Apthychotrema rostrata, eastern shovelnose ray